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Cronología del desarrollo de los cohetes 1642-1944

En este archivo podras encontrar una cronología del desarrollo de los cohetes entre los años 1642y 1944.

Archivo pdf  261 k : sondas-1642-1944


4 mayo 2009 Posted by | Lanzamientos 1642-1944 | Deja un comentario

Cronología del desarrollo de los cohetes 1642-1944

por Eladio Miranda Batlle

1642-1727 AD –

Isaac Newton synthesizes recent astronomical discoveries through universal gravitation in his famed, Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), 1687.


1649, 1652 AD –

Cyrano’s reference to “fire-crackers” in his novels, Voyage dans la Lune (Voyage to the Moon) and Histoire des États etc Empires du Soleil (History of the States and Empires of the Sun). Both refer to the newest scientific theories.


1668 AD –

Rocket experiments near Berlin by the German colonel, Christoph von Geissler.


1672 AD –

Cassini, an Italian astronomer, predicts the distance between Earth and Sun to be 86,000,000 miles.


1686 AD –

Bernard de Fontenelle’s popular astronomy book, Entretiens sur la Pluralité des Mondes (Discourses on the Plurality of Worlds) published. Contained speculations about the habitability of the planets.


1690 AD –

Gabriel Daniel’s Voiage du Monde de Descartes (Voyage to the World of Descartes) discusses the soul’s separation from the body in order to go to the “Globe of the Moon”.


1698 AD –

Christian Huygens, renowned scientist, writes Cosmotheoros, or Conjectures Concerning the Planetary Worlds, a non-fictional premise on life on other planets.


1703 AD –

David Russen’s Iter Lunare: or Voyage to the Moon uses the idea of catapulting to the moon.


1705 AD –

Daniel Defoe’s The Consolidator tells of an ancient race’s mastery of Lunar flight and describes various spaceships and legends of lunar flights.


1752 AD –

Voltaire’s Micromégas describes a race of people on the star Sirius.


1758 AD –

Emanuel Swedenborg writes Earths in our Solar System, which takes Christian Huygens‘ non-fictional approach to discussing life on other planets.


1775 AD –

Louis Folie writes Le Philosophe Sans Prétention, about a Mercurian who observes Earthlings.


1781 AD –

March 13: William Herschel makes his own telescope and discovers Uranus. He also puts forth theories of a habitable sun and life on other planetary bodies. Hyder Ali of India uses rockets against the British (were composed of heavy metal tubes guided by bamboo and had a range of a mile).


1783 AD –

First manned balloon flight made.


1792-1799 AD –

Further use of military rockets against the British in India.


1799-1825 AD –

Pierre Simon, Marquis de Laplace, produces a five-volume work to describe the Newtonian “system of the world,” entitled Celestial Mechanics.


1800 –

British Admiral Sir William Congreve began working with rockets for military purposes in England. He had originally adapted the idea from Indian rockets.


1801 AD –

Rocket experiments carried out by the scientist, Congreve. Astronomers discover that the large gap between Mars and Jupiter contains a large asteroid belt. The largest, Ceres, was found to have a diameter of 480 miles.


1806 AD –

Claude Ruggiere launched small animals in rockets equipped with parachutes, in France.


1806 AD –

First major rocket bombardment done (on Boulogne, using Congreve rockets).


1807 AD –

William Congreve used his rockets in the Napoleonic Wars, as the British attacked Copenhagen and Denmark.


1812 AD –

British rocket fire on Blasdenburg. Results in the taking of Washington D.C. and the White House.


1813 AD –

British Rocket Corps formed. Begin by taking action in Leipzig.


1814 AD –

August 9: British rocket fire on Fort McHenry prompts Francis Scott Key to write the “rockets’ red glare” line in his famous poem. During the War of Independence, the British used the Congreve rockets to attack Fort McHenry in Baltimore.


1817 –

In St. Petersburg, Russian Zasyadko rockets were fired.


1825 AD –

Dutch forces bomb the Celebes tribe in the East Indies William Hale develops the stickless rocket.


1826 AD –

Congreve performs further rocket experiments using stage rockets (rockets mounted on rockets) as set out by Von Schmidlap.


1827 AD –

George Tucker, under the pseudonym Joseph Atterlay, represents a “new wave in science fiction,” through describing a spaceship in A Voyage to the Moon with some Account of the Manners and Customs, Science and Philosophy of the People of Morosofia and other Lunarians.


1828 –

Russian Zasyadko rockets were put to use in the Russo Turkish War


1835 AD –

Edgar Allen Poe describes a lunar voyage in a balloon in Lunar Discoveries, Extraordinary Aerial Voyage by Baron Hans Pfaall. August 25: Richard Adams Locke publishes his “Moon Hoax.” He publishes a week-long serial in the New York Sun, as if written by Sir John Herschel, discoverer of Uranus, about moon creatures. This was under the title, Great Astronomical Discoveries Lately Made By Sir John Herschel.


1837 AD –

Wilhelm Beer and Johann von Mädler publish a map of the moon using the telescope at Beer’s observatory.


1841 –

C. Golightly was granted the first patent in England for a rocket-airplane.


1846 AD –

Urbain Leverrier discovers Neptune.



Jules Verne published his novel, entitled From the Earth to the Moon.



Tsiolkovsky’s Free Space was published by Tsiolkovsky who describes a rocket that functioned in a vacuum under Newton’s Action-Reaction” laws of motion.



Tsiolkovsky published a book on space exploration which was entitled Dreams of the Earth and the Sky.



H.G. Wells published his book, The First Man in the Moon, in which a substance with anti-gravity properties launched men to the moon.



Tsiolkovsky produced a work entitled Exploring Space with Devices. Within, he discussed the applications of liquid propellants.



Robert Goddard, in his study of fuels, determined that liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen would serve as an efficient source of propulsion, when properly combusted.



Russian Gorochof published plans for a reaction airplane which operated on crude oil and compressed air for fuel.



Robert Goddard was granted two U.S. patents for rockets using solid fuel, liquid fuel, multiple propellant charges, and multi-stage designs.



November 6-7, Goddard fired several rocket devices for representatives of the U.S. Signal Corps, Air Corps, Army ordinance and other assorted guests, at the Aberdeen proving grounds.



Robert Goddard wrote, and then submitted A Method of Attaining Extreme Altitudes, to the Smithsonian Institution for publication.



Herman Oberth published The Rocket into Interplanetary Space in Germany creating discussion on the technology of rocket propulsion.



Tsiolkovsky conceived the idea of multi-stage rockets, and discussed them for the first time in Cosmic Rocket Trains. A Central Committee for the Study of Rocket Propulsion was established in the Soviet Union, in April.



The Attainability of Celestial Bodies, by Walter Hohmann, described the principles involved in interplanetary flight.



March 16: Robert Goddard tested the world’s first successful liquid-fueled rocket, in Auburn, Massachusetts. It attained a height of 41 feet in 2.5 seconds, and it came to rest 184 feet from the launch pad.



Enthusiasts in Germany formed the Society for Space Travel. Hermann Oberth was among the first several members to join. Die Rakete, a rocket publication, began in Germany.



The first of nine volumes of an encyclopedia on interplanetary travel was published by Russian Professor Nikolai Rynin. In April, the first manned, rocket-powered, automobile was tested by Fritz von Opel, Max Valier and others, in Berlin, Germany. In June, the first manned flight in a rocket-powered glider was achieved. Friedrich Stamer was the pilot, and flew about one mile. Launch was achieved by an elastic launch rope and a 44 pound thrust rocket, then a second rocket fired while airborne. Hermann Oberth began acting as consultant to Film Director Fritz Lang’s Girl in the Moon and built a rocket for premiere publicity. The rocket exploded on the launch pad.



Hermann Oberth published his second book about space travel, and one chapter included the idea of an electric space ship. On July 17, Robert Goddard launched a small 11 ft. rocket which carried a small camera, barometer and thermometer which were recovered after the flight. In August, many small solid-propellant rockets were attached to Junkers-33 seaplane, and were used to achieve the first recorded jet-assisted airplane take-off.



In April, The American Rocket Society was founded in New York City by David Lasser, G. Edward Pendray, and ten others for the purpose of promoting interest in space travel. December 17th marked the establishment of a rocket program Kummersdorf. It was also decided that the Kummersdorf proving grounds would be equipped to develop military missiles. On December 30th, Robert Goddard fired an 11 foot liquid fueled rocket, to a height of 2000 feet at a speed of 500 miles per hour. The launch took place near Roswell New Mexico.



In Austria, Friedrich Schmiedl fired the world’s first mail carrying rocket. David Lasser’s book, The Conquest of Space, was published in the United States. May 14: VfR successfully launched a liquid-fueled rocket to a height of 60 meters.



Von Braun and his colleagues demonstrated a liquid fueled rocket to the German Army. It crashed before the parachute opened, but Von Braun was soon employed to develop liquid fueled rockets for the Army. On April 19th, the first Goddard rocket with gyroscopically controlled vanes was fired. The vanes gave it automatically stabilized flight. In November, at Stockton N.J., the American Interplanetary Society tested a rocket design that they had adapted from the German Society for Space Travel’s designs.



The Soviets launched a new rocket fueled by solid and liquid fuels, which reached a height of 400 meters. The launch took place near Moscow. At Stanten Island, New York, the American Interplanetary Society launched it’s No. 2 rocket, and watched it attain 250 feet in altitude in 2 seconds.



In December, Von Braun and his associates launched 2 A-2 rockets, both to heights of 1.5 miles.



The Russians fired a liquid, powered rocket that achieved a height of over eight miles. In March, a rocket of Robert Goddard’s exceeded the speed of sound. In May, Goddard launched one of his gyro-controlled rockets to a height of 7500 feet, in New Mexico.



Scientists from the California Institute of Technology began rocket testing near Pasadena, CA. This marked the beginning of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Smithsonian Institution printed Robert Goddard’s famous report, “Liquid Propellant Rocket Development,” in March.



Von Braun and his team relocated to a special, purpose-built rocket testing facility at Peenemunde on the Baltic Coast of Germany. Russia established rocket test centers in Leningrad, Moscow and Kazan. Goddard watched one of his rockets fly to higher than 9,000 feet, on March 27. This was the highest altitude attained by any of the Goddard Rockets.



Goddard began to develop high speed fuel pumps, in order to better outfit liquid fueled rockets.



German scientists fired, and recovered, A-5 rockets with gyroscopic controls that attained seven miles altitude and eleven miles range.



The Royal Air Force used rockets against the Luftwaffe planes in the Battle of Britain.



In July, the first U.S. based launch of a rocket assisted airplane took place. Lt. Homer A. Boushey piloted the craft. The U.S. Navy began developing “Mousetrap,” which was a ship-based 7.2 inch mortar-fired bomb.



The U.S. Air Force launched it’s first air-to-air and air-to-surface rockets. After a failed attempt in June, Germans managed to successfully launch an A-4 (V2) rocket, in October. It traveled 120 miles downrange from the launch pad.



January 1st marked the beginning of long-range rocket development, by the California Institute of Technology. This testing resulted in the Private-A and Corporal rockets. In September, the first fully operational V2 rocket was launched against London, from Germany. Over a thousand V2’s followed. Between the 1st and 16th of December, twenty four Private-A rockets were test fired at Camp Irwin, CA.


18 abril 2009 Posted by | Lanzamientos 1642-1944 | 1 comentario